**Related Resources: Manufacturing**

### Machining Metal, Applications and Theory

**Manufacturing Processes and Design **

Machining Metal, Applications and Theory

416 pages

Thomas Childs

University of Leeds, UK

Katsuhiro Maekawa

Ibaraki University, Japan

Toshiyuki Obikawa

Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan

Yasuo Yamane

Hiroshima University, Japan

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Preface:

Improved manufacturing productivity, over the last 50 years, has occurred in the area of machining through developments in the machining process, in machine tool technology and in manufacturing management. The subject of this book is the machining process itself, but placed in the wider context of manufacturing productivity. It is mainly concerned with how mechanical and materials engineering science can be applied to understand the process better and to support future improvements.

It is intended that this book will be of interest and helpful to all mechanical, manufacturing and materials engineers whose responsibilities include metal machining matters. It is, however, written specifically for masters course students. Masters courses are a major feature of both the American and Japanese University systems, preparing the more able twenty year olds in those countries for the transition from foundation undergraduate courses to useful professional careers. In the UK, masters courses have not in the past been popular, but changes from an elite to a mass higher education system are resulting in an increasingly important role for taught advanced level and continuing professional development courses.

It is supposed that masters course readers will have encountered basic mechanical and materials principles before, but will not have had much experience of their application. A feature of the book is that many of these principles are revised and placed in the machining context, to relate the material to earlier understanding. Appendices are heavily used to meet this objective without interrupting the flow of material too much.

It is a belief of the authors that texts should be informative in practical as well as theoretical detail. We hope that a reader who wants to know how much power will be needed to turn a common engineering alloy, or what cutting speed might be used, or what material properties might be appropriate for carrying out some reader-specific simulation, will have a reasonable chance either of finding the information in these pages or of finding a helpful reference for further searching.

Content:

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Machine tool technology 3

1.2 Manufacturing systems 15

1.3 Materials technology 19

1.4 Economic optimization of machining 24

1.5 A forward look 32

References 34

2 Chip formation fundamentals 35

2.1 Historical introduction 35

2.2 Chip formation mechanics 37

2.3 Thermal modelling 57

2.4 Friction, lubrication and wear 65

2.5 Summary 79

References 80

3 Work and tool materials 81

3.1 Work material characteristics in machining 82

3.2 Tool materials 97

References 117

4 Tool damage 118

4.1 Tool damage and its classification 118

4.2 Tool life 130

4.3 Summary 134

References 135

5 Experimental methods 136

5.1 Microscopic examination methods 136

5.2 Forces in machining 139

5.3 Temperatures in machining 147

5.4 Acoustic emission 155

References 157

6 Advances in mechanics 159

6.1 Introduction 159

6.2 Slip-line field modelling 159

6.3 Introducing variable flow stress behaviour 168

6.4 Non-orthogonal (three-dimensional) machining 177

References 197

7 Finite element methods 199

7.1 Finite element background 199

7.2 Historical developments 204

7.3 The Iterative Convergence Method (ICM) 212

7.4 Material flow stress modelling for finite element analyses 220

References 224

8 Applications of finite element analysis 226

8.1 Simulation of BUE formation 226

8.2 Simulation of unsteady chip formation 234

8.3 Machinability analysis of free cutting steels 240

8.4 Cutting edge design 251

8.5 Summary 262

References 262

9 Process selection, improvement and control 265

9.1 Introduction 265

9.2 Process models 267

9.3 Optimization of machining conditions and expert system applications 283

9.4 Monitoring and improvement of cutting states 305

9.5 Model-based systems for simulation and control of machining
processes 317

References 324

Appendices

1 Metals’ plasticity, and its finite element formulation 328

A1.1 Yielding and flow under triaxial stresses: initial concepts 329

A1.2 The special case of perfectly plastic material in plane strain 332

A1.3 Yielding and flow in a triaxial stress state: advanced analysis 340

A1.4 Constitutive equations for numerical modelling 343

A1.5 Finite element formulations 348

References 350

2 Conduction and convection of heat in solids 351

A2.1 The differential equation for heat flow in a solid 351

A2.2 Selected problems, with no convection 353

A2.3 Selected problems, with convection 355

A2.4 Numerical (finite element) methods 357

References 362

3 Contact mechanics and friction 363

A3.1 Introduction 363

A3.2 The normal contact of a single asperity on an elastic foundation 365

A3.3 The normal contact of arrays of asperities on an elastic foundation 368

A3.4 Asperities with traction, on an elastic foundation 369

A3.5 Bulk yielding 371

A3.6 Friction coefficients greater than unity 373

References 374

4 Work material: typical mechanical and thermal behaviours 375

A4.1 Work material: room temperature, low strain rate, strain hardening

behaviours 375

A4.2 Work material: thermal properties 376

A4.3 Work material: strain hardening behaviours at high strain rates and

temperatures 379

References 381

5 Approximate tool yield and fracture analysis 383

A5.1 Tool yielding 383

A5.2 Tool fracture 385

References 386

6 Tool material properties 387

A6.1 High speed steels 387

A6.2 Cemented carbides and cermets 388

A6.3 Ceramics and superhard materials 393

References 395

7 Fuzzy logic 396

A7.1 Fuzzy sets 396

A7.2 Fuzzy operations 398

References 400

Index 401

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