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A heat treatment for ferrous alloys in which a part is quenched from the austenitizing temperature at a rate fast enough to avoid formation of ferrite or pearlite and then held at a temperature just above Ms until transformation to bainite is complete. Although designated as bainite in both austempered steel and austempered ductile iron (ADI), austempered steel consists of two phase mixtures containing ferrite and carbide, while austempered ductile iron consists of two phase mixtures containing ferrite and austenite.



A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron. Unless otherwise designated (such as nickel austenite), the solute is generally assumed to be carbon.



Forming austenite by heating a ferrous alloy into the transformation range (partial austenitizing) or above the transformation range (complete austenitizing). When used without qualification, the term implies complete austenitizing.


Air Carbon Arc Cutting

A cutting process by which metals are melted by the heat of an arc using a carbon electrode. Molten metal is forced away from the cut by a blast of forced air.



To anodize aluminum is to coat the metal by either chemical or electrical means. The coating provides improved corrosion and wear resistance. The thickness of this coating depends upon the length of the treatment. This coating is often removed from the area to be welded. This coating can be reapplied after welding.


Automatic Welding (AU)

Uses equipment which welds without the constant adjusting of controls by the welder or operator. Equipment controls joint alignment by using an automatic sensing device.



A transducer whose output voltage is proportional to the acceleration of the moving body to which it is attached.



The unit of electrical quantity in the cgs electromagnetic system. One abcoulomb equals 10 coulombs and is the quantity of electricity that flows past any point in a circuit in one second when the current is one abampere.



A generic term denoting a treatment, consisting of heating to and holding at a suitable temperature followed by cooling at a suitable rate, used primarily to soften metallic materials, but also to simultaneously produce desired changes in other properties or in microstructure. The purpose of such changes may be, but is not confined to: improvement of machinability, facilitation of cold work, improvement of mechanical or electrical properties, and/or increase in stability of dimensions. When the term is used without qualification, full annealing is implied. When applied only for the relief of stress, the process is properly called stress relieving or stressrelief annealing. In ferrous alloys, annealing usually is done above the upper critical temperature, but the timetemperature cycles vary widely in both maximum temperature attained and in cooling rate employed, depending on composition, material condition, and results desired. When applicable, the following commercial process names should be used: black annealing , blue annealing , box annealing , bright annealing , cycle annealing , flame annealing , full annealing , graphitizing , intercritical annealing , isothermal annealing , malleablizing , order hardening , process annealing , quench annealing , spheroidizing , subcritical annealing . In nonferrous alloys, annealing cycles are designed to: (a) remove part or all of the effects of cold working (recrystallization may or may not be involved); (b) cause substantially complete coalescence of precipitates from solid solution in relatively coarse form; or (c) both, depending on composition and material condition. Specific process names in commercial use are final annealing , full annealing , intermediate annealing , partial annealing , recrystallization annealing , stress relieving ,anneal to temper .


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