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Electronics Circuits Applications Manual

Electronics, Instrumentation Design and Engineering

Electronics Circuits Applications Manual
333 Pages
Contributed by: Harsh Patel, Pune India

Applications circuits for Audio & hi-fi, Cars & bicycles, Computers & microprocessors, Design ideas, Electrophonics, HF & VHF, Hobbies & pastimes, Home & garden, Power supplies, Test & measurement, TV & video

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Electronics Circuits Applications Manual
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TOC

Chapter 1 AUDIO AND HI-FI
AUDIO AND HI-FI AUDIO-CONTROLLED MAINS SWITCH . 9
AUDIO LINE DRIVER 10
AUDIO TRANSFER EQUALIZER 10
COMPRESSOR 11
CURRENT CORRECTED AF AMPLIFIER . 13
DIGITAL AUDIO SELECTOR 14
DIGITAL VOLUME CONTROL I 15
DIGITAL VOLUME CONTROL II 17
DISCOMIXER 18
HEADPHONE AMPLIFIER 22
HI-FI HEADPHONE AMPLIFIER 25
HIGH DYNAMIC RANGE MIXER 26
INTEGRATED STEREO AMPLIFIER 27
LOUDSPEAKER PROTECTION I 27
LOUDSPEAKER PROTECTION II 29
LOUDSPEAKER PROTECTION III 30
LOW-NOISE RIAA PREAMPLIFIER 32
MICROPHONE PRE-AMPLIFIER WITH MUTE SWTICH 36
MICROPHONE-SIGNAL PROCESSOR ... 39
MINI-AMPLIFIER 40
MINI STEREO AMPLIFIER 40
MOSFET POWER AMPLIFIER 41
NOISE GATE 42
SIMPLE PRE-AMPLIFIER 43
SINGLE-CHIP 40 W AMPLIFIER 44
SMD HEADPHONE AMPLIFIER 45
SPEECH PROCESSOR WITH BACKGROUND SUPPRESSION 46
STEREO INDICATOR 48
STEREO PRE-AMPLIFIER WITH TONE CONTROL 48
SUBWOOFER FILTER 50 TRUE CLASS/B AMPLIFIER 51
TUNING AF POWER STAGES 52

Chapter 2 CARS AND BICYCLES
AUTOMATIC CAR ALARM 54
BICYCLE LIGHTS AND ALARM 54
BRAKE LIGHTS MONITOR 55
CAR BURGLAR ALARM 56
CAR FUSE MONITOR 57
CAR LIGHTS MONITOR 57
CAR RADIO ALARM I 58
CAR RADIO ALARM II 60
COURTESEY LIGHT DELAY 60
FLASHING REAR LIGHT 61
GARAGE STOP LIGHT 62
HALOGEN LAMP PROTECTOR 63
LED REVOLUTION COUNTER 63
MOTOR-CYCLE GEAR INDICATOR 67

Chapter 3 COMPUTERS AND MICROPROCESSORS
4-WAY DAC EXTENSION 68
8-BIT ADC 69
8-BIT DAC 70
16-KEY INPUT FOR MSX MICROS 71
32 KBYTE PSEUDO ROM 72
40-TRACK ADAPTOR 75
2708 ALTERNATIVES 75
6502 TRACER 76
A-D CONVERTER FOR JOYSTICKS 78
BI-DIRECTIONAL PARALLEL INTERFACE FOR C64 79
BI-DIRECTIONAL SERIAL-PARALLEL CON- VERTER 80
BUS DIRECTION ADD-ON FOR MSX EXTENSIONS 82
COMMUNICATION PROGRAM FOR C64 83
CPU GEAR/BOX 86
CURRENT LOOP FOR MODEM 87
DIRECT READING DIGITIZER 88
DISCRETE DAC 90
DRIVE SELECTOR 91
FILTERED CONNECTOR 92
FLOPPY CENTRING UNIT 92
FLOPPY DISC DRIVE 93
HEXADECIMAL KEYBOARD 94
IMPROVED SOUND FOR THE BBC MICRO 95
JOYSTICK ADAPTOR 96
LEVEL ADAPTOR FOR ANALOGUE JOYSTICKS 97
LISTEN-IN KEY FOR DATA RECORDERS . 98
MAINS INTERFACE 98
MANDELBROT GRAPHICS 99
MORSE TRAINING WITH THE JUNIOR COMPUTER 100
PIA FOR ELECTRON 102
QL RAM EXTENSION 103
RAM EXTENSION FOR QL 104
RS232 INTERFACE 105
SAMPLE & HOLD FOR ANALOGUE SIGNALS 107
SERIAL DATA CONVERTER 109
SERIAL LINE DRIVER AND RECEIVER ..111
SIDEWAY RAM FOR BBC AND ELECTRON PLUS ONE 112
SIMPLE D-A CONVERTER 113
SIMPLE VIDEO INVERTER FOR ZX81 ..115
SYNC INVERTER FOR THE QL 116
SYNCHRONIZATION SEPARATOR 116
TWIN KEYBOARD FOR APPLE II 117
TWO-FREQUENCY CLOCK 119 4.
DESIGN IDEAS 6-WAY CHANNEL SELECTOR 120
ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL 120
BAND-GAP VOLTAGE REFERENCE 121
BUZZER DRIVER 123
COMBINING DIGITAL CIRCUITS 123
CURRENT DRIVE FOR STEPPER MOTORS 124
DC-OPERATED 50 HZ TIMEBASE 126
DECOUPLING IN LOGIC CIRCUITS 126
DEGLITCHER 128
DESIGNING A LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER . 128
DISPLAY INTENSITY CONTROL 129
DUTY FACTORY ANALYSER 130
ELECTRONIC ROTARY SWITCH 132
FAST OPTO-COUPLER 133
FAST OPTO-ISOLATOR 133
HC-BASED OSCILLATORS 134
HCMOS VCO 134
HCU/HCT BASED OSCILLATOR 135
HEARTBEAT MONITOR 136
HEAT SINK MONITOR 138
LOGIC FAMILIES 139
LOW VOLTAGE DROP REGULATORS ... 139
MAINS ZERO-CROSSING DETECTOR. . . 141
OPAMP-BASED CURRENT SOURCE 141
PIERCE OSCILLATOR 142
POWER SUPPLY SEQUENCING FOR OPAMPS 143
PRECISION CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR 143
SMART LED SELECTOR 144
SPEED CONTROL FOR DC MOTORS ... 145
STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL 146
SYMMETRICAL CASCODE OSCILLATOR 148
THRIFTY LED INDICATOR 149
TIME STRETCHER 150 TRACKING WINDOW COMPARATOR ... 151
TRANSMISSION LINES FOR TTL CIRCUITS 152
TUNING AF POWER STAGES 152
TWO-FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR 153
TWO-GATE BISTABLE 1 54 UP/DOWN CLOCK GENERATOR 154
UP/DOWN COUNTER CONTROL 155
VERSATILE TIMER 157
VOLTAGE-TO-CURRENT CONVERTER ... 158

Chapter 4 DESIGN IDEAS
6-WAY CHANNEL SELECTOR 120
ANALOGUE AND DIGITAL 120
BAND-GAP VOLTAGE REFERENCE 121
BUZZER DRIVER 123
COMBINING DIGITAL CIRCUITS 123
CURRENT DRIVE FOR STEPPER MOTORS 124
DC-OPERATED 50 HZ TIMEBASE 126
DECOUPLING IN LOGIC CIRCUITS 126
DEGLITCHER 128
DESIGNING A LOW NOISE AMPLIFIER . 128
DISPLAY INTENSITY CONTROL 129
DUTY FACTORY ANALYSER 130
ELECTRONIC ROTARY SWITCH 132
FAST OPTO-COUPLER 133
FAST OPTO-ISOLATOR 133
HC-BASED OSCILLATORS 134
HCMOS VCO 134
HCU/HCT BASED OSCILLATOR 135
HEARTBEAT MONITOR 136
HEAT SINK MONITOR 138
LOGIC FAMILIES 139
LOW VOLTAGE DROP REGULATORS ... 139
MAINS ZERO-CROSSING DETECTOR. . . 141
OPAMP-BASED CURRENT SOURCE 141
PIERCE OSCILLATOR 142
POWER SUPPLY SEQUENCING FOR OPAMPS 143
PRECISION CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR 143
SMART LED SELECTOR 144
SPEED CONTROL FOR DC MOTORS ... 145
STEPPER MOTOR CONTROL 146
SYMMETRICAL CASCODE OSCILLATOR 148
THRIFTY LED INDICATOR 149
TIME STRETCHER 150
TRACKING WINDOW COMPARATOR ... 151
TRANSMISSION LINES FOR TTL CIRCUITS 152
TUNING AF POWER STAGES 152
TWO-FREQUENCY OSCILLATOR 153
TWO-GATE BISTABLE 1 54
UP/DOWN CLOCK GENERATOR 154
UP/DOWN COUNTER CONTROL 155
VERSATILE TIMER 157
VOLTAGE-TO-CURRENT CONVERTER ... 158

Chapter 5 ELECTROPHONICS
BLOW THAT SYNTHESIZER! 159
DISCO SOUND LIMITER 160
GUITAR FUZZ UNIT 161
LIMITER FOR GUITARS
162 MELODIC SAWTOOTH 163
METAL PERCUSSION GENERATOR 164
PATCH CATCHER 164
QUARZ-CONTROLLED TUNING FORK . . 166
SOUND-LEVEL INDICATOR 166
SWELL PEDAL 170
WAH-WAH BOX FOR GUITARS 172

Chapter 6 HF AND VHF
ELECTRONIC VHF/UHF AERIAL SWITCH 173
FOUR- WAY AERIAL SWITCH 173
FRONT END FOR FM RECEIVER 175
FRONT END FOR SW RECEIVER 176
HIGH LEVEL PASSIVE DBM 177
HIGH LEVEL WIDEBAND RF PREAMPLIFIER 177
LOW NOISE AERIAL BOOSTER 178
MORSE FILTERS 180
MULTI-MODE yt/P-CONTROLLED IF MODULE 181
NOISE BLANKER 184
NARROW-BAND IF FILTER 185
NAVTEX RECEIVER 185
RTTY CALIBRATION INDICATOR 186
RTTY/CW FILTER 187
S METER 187
SEND/RECEIVE IDENT 188
SIMPLE FIELD STRENGTH INDICATOR . . 189
SPOT FREQUENCY RECEIVER 189
SWITCHABLE BANDSELECTOR 190
SYNTHESIZER FOR SW RECEIVER 192
TUNEABLE ACTIVE AERIAL FOR SW . . . 194
TUNEABLE FM BOOSTER 195
VLF CONVERTER 197
WEATHER SATELLITE INTERFACE 198

Chapter 7 HOBBIES AND PASTIMES
AUTO FOCUS FOR SLIDE PROJECTOR . 200
DIGITAL JOYSTICK INTERFACE 201
ELECTRONIC TOSS-UP 202
FLASHING LIGHTS 203
HALOGEN-LAMP DIMMER 204
MODEL AIRCRAFT MONITOR 206
MODEL RAILWAY MONITOR PANEL 207
"ON THE AIR" INDICATOR 209
PWM DRIVER FOR DC MOTORS 210
6 SECTION INDICATOR FOR MODEL RAILWAY 211
SERVO ROBOT DRIVER . 212
SOLID-STATE DARK-ROOM LIGHT 212
SPEED CONTROL FOR R/C MODELS ... 213
STARTING PISTOL SIMULATOR 215
TIME-LAPSE UNIT 216
TIMER FOR FIXING BATH 217

Chapter 8 HOME AND GARDEN
7-DIGIT CODE LOCK 218
ABSORPTION-TYPE METAL DETECTOR .219
ALTERNATING FLASHER 220
AUTOMATIC SLIDING DOOR 221
BURGLAR DETERRENT 222
CALL COUNTER 223
CENTRAL HEATING CONTROL 224
CH-BOILER CONTROL 226
COLOUR WHEEL 227
CURRENT MONITOR AND ALARM 228
DECEPTIVE LOCK 229
DESICCATOR 230
ELECTRONIC BELL-PULL 231
ELECTRONIC DOG 231
FLASHING LIGHT WITH TWILIGHT SWITCH 232
FOUR POSITION TOUCH DIMMER 233
HOTEL SWITCH 234
INDUSTRIAL CLOCK CONTROLLER 235
INFRA-RED LIGHT BARRIER 236
JUMBO DIMMER 238
JUMBO DISPLAYS 238
LED DIRECTION INDICATOR 243
LIGHT-SENSITIVE SWITCH 243
LIGHT SENSITIVE TRIGGER 244
LONG-INTERVAL TIMER 245
MAINS-BASED REMOTE CONTROLLER . 245
MAINS FAILURE ALARM 246
MAINS VOLTAGE MONITOR 247
MAINS WIRING LOCATOR 248
METAL DETECTOR 248
METAL-PIPE DETECTOR 249
MINIATURE RUNNING LIGHTS 250
MUSICAL GREETING CARDS 251
RANDOM LIGHTS CONTROLLER 252
REMOTE CONTROL FOR LIGHT SWITCHES - 1
253 REMOTE CONTROL FOR LIGHT SWITCHES - 2
254 RODENTS DETERRENT 255
SET POINTER 256
SIREN 257
SMD DIE 258
SMOKE AND GAS DETECTOR 259
STAIRCASE LIGHT CONTROLLER 260
SUPER DIMMER 261
TELEPHONE-BELL SIMULATOR 263
TEMPERATURE REGULATOR WITH ZERO CROSSING SWITCH 263
TEMPERATURE SENSOR 264
THERMOMETER 264
THERMOSTAT-CONTROLLED SOIL HEATING 265
TWIN BELL-PUSH 266
TWIN DIMMER 266
TWO-TONE CHIME 268
VENTILATOR CONTROL ... 269
WATCHDOG 270
WATER DIVINER 271

Chapter 9 POWER SUPPLIES
12 V NICD BATTERY CHARGER 273
ACTIVE RECTIFIER WITHOUT DIODES . 273
BATTERY CHARGE/DISCHARGE INDICATOR 274
BATTERY CHARGING INDICATOR 275
BATTERY FITNESS CENTRE 275
BATTERY GUARD 276
CURRENT INDICATOR 277
CURRENT INDICATOR FOR 723
278 DC/DC CONVERTER 279
DIGITAL VOLTAGE/CURRENT DISPLAY . . 280
DIRECT-CURRENT MONITOR 282
DIRECT-VOLTAGE DOUBLER 283
ECONOMICAL POWER SUPPLY 284
LEAD-ACID BATTERY CHARGER 285
LOSS-FREE SUPPLY PROTECTOR 286
LOW-DROP VOLTAGE REGULATOR 287
MAINS POWER SUPPLY WITH PRIMARY REGULATION 287
MAINS ZERO-CROSSING DETECTOR . . . 288
NEGATIVE SUPPLY CONVERTER 289
NICD BATTERY CHARGERS 290
ONE-CHIP DC CONVERTER 291
PRECISION RECTIFIER 291
SIMPLE NICD CHARGER 292
SIMPLE ZERO CROSSING DETECTOR . . 293
SUPPLY PROTECTION 293
SWITCH-MODE POWER SUPPLY 294
VARIABLE 3A POWER SUPPLY 295
VISIBLE POWER-ON DELAY 295 VOLTAGE INVERTER 296

Chapter 10 TEST AND MEASUREMENT
8-CHANNEL VOLTAGE DISPLAY 298
AUDIO TESTER 298
AUTOMATIC SWITCH OFF 300
CALIBRATION GENERATOR 301
CRYSTAL TESTER 301
DIVIDER CASCADE 302
FAST VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED PULSE GENERATOR 303
FAULTFINDING PROBE FOR ^Ps 303
FUNCTION GENERATOR 304
GHZ PRESCALER 305
INSTRUMENTATION AMPLIFIER 306
LINE BAR GENERATOR 307
LOGARITHMIC SWEEP GENERATOR . . . 307
LOW-CURRENT AMMETER 308
MEASURING WITH THE BBC MICRO . . . 309
METER AMPLIFIER 310
METERING SELECTOR 311
NOISE GENERATOR 312
OPAMP TESTER 313
POCKET FREQUENCY METER 314
PROGRAMMABLE BAUD-RATE GENERATOR 315
RECTANGULAR PULSE GENERATOR ... 316
RMS-TO-DC CONVERTER 317
SERVO MOTOR TESTER 318
SIMPLE SWEEP GENERATOR 319
SIMPLIFIED WORD COMPARATOR 321
TWO-TONE RF TEST OSCILLATOR 322
VARIABLE WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR . 323
WIEN BRIDGE OSCILLATOR 324

Chapter 11 TV AND VIDEO
RF MODULE FOR IDU 325
RGB-TO-MONOCHROME CONVERTER . . 326
SCART SWITCH 327
SYNCHRONIZATION SEPARATOR I 329
SYNCHRONIZATION SEPARATOR II 329
VIDEO AMPLIFIER FOR B/W TV SETS . . 330
VIDEO BUFFER/REPEATER 331
VIDEO DISTRIBUTION AMPLIFIER 331
VIDEO SELECTOR 332

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