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Encyclopedia of Machine Shop Practice

Manufacturing Process and Design

Encyclopedia of Machine Shop Practice
Guide to Principles and Practice of Machine Shop Procedure
George W. Barnwell
Professor of Production Practice
Stevens Institute of Technology
1941
572 pages

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The preparation of a book of this type would be well-nigh impossible without the assistance of a number of interested persons. Among those who have contributed their time and help, grateful acknowledgment is therefore made to Mr. W. Hughes White of the Faitoute Iron and Steel Company for able assistance in preparing manuscript; to Mr. Frank W. Curtis of the Van Norman Machine Tool Company for the use of material on Jigs and Fixtures; to Mr. Alfred J. Barchi for numerous drawings and other assistance; to Professor Gregory Jamieson Comstock and Professor William Reeder Halliday and other members of the Stevens faculty for valuable suggestions; and to Miss Betty Roth for secretarial assistance.

Appreciation is also due to the following manufacturers for permission to reproduce many of their latest models of machine tools: To Brown and Sharpe for an Automatic Screw Machine, Plain Milling Machine, Universal Milling Machine, Vertical Milling Machine, Grinding Machine, and Lathe; to Jones and Lamson for a Universal Turret Lathe and a Fay Automatic Lathe; to Cincinnati Grinders Incorporated for a Centerless Grinding Machine; to the Bullard Company for a Vertical Turret Lathe; to American Tool Works Company for a Shaper; to the Ohio Machine Tool Company for a Planer; to theE. W. Bliss Company for an Inclinable Power Press and a Toggle Drawing Press; to the Lobdell Car Wheel Company for a Power Hammer; to the Mesta Machine Company for a Hydraulic Forging Machine; to the National Machinery Company for a Forging Machine; and to the Erie Foundry Company for Drop Forging Hammers.

TOC

CHAPTER I BENCH WORK
John Wayne and Dennis Laycock

Filing—Kinds of File—Holding the Tool—Drilling—Twist and Center Drills—Sharpening Drills—Hand and Breast Drills—Drill Speed—Reaming—Blind Holes—Cutting Acetal- Hacksaws and Their Teeth—Shears and Snips—Chiseling—Riveting—The Rivet Set— Cutting Screw-Threads—Taps—Thread Gages—Vises—Metal-Working Bench

CHAPTER II METALS IN ENGINEERING PRODUCTION
John D. Watson

Metals and Their Uses—Heat Resistance—Tensile Strength—Alloys—Cast Iron—Carbon Content—Nickel Irons—Chromium and Silicon—Wrought Iron and Steels—Definitions- Mild and Medium Steels—Nickel Chrome Steels-Non-Ferrous Metals—Uses of Brasses— Manganese Bronze—Uses of Copper—Cupro-Nickel Alloys—Properties of Aluminum- Powder Metallurgy

CHAPTER III
THE LATHE
H. C. Town, M. E.

Mechanism of the Lathe—Speed Adjustment—Gearing—The Headstock—Maintenance— Centering—Toots—Tool Angles—Attachments—Chucks—Coolants—Lubricants—Metal Turning-
Turret Lathes—Automatics—Air-Chucks—Tools for Automatic Lathes

CHAPTER IV
THREAD-CUTTiNG
H. C. Town, M. E

Screw Thread Standards—Acme Threads—Square Threads—Buttress Threads—Gearing- Selecting Gears—Pitch and Lead—Machining—Dial Indicators—Multiple Threads—Attachments—
Automatic Thread-Cutting—Varying Lead Screws

CHAPTER V
TAPER-TURNING, KNURLING, AND OTHERUSES OF THE LATHEH.
C. Town, M. E.

Method of Taper-Turning—Taper Measurements and Angles—Using Taper Gages— Reaming—Forming—Knurling—Eccentric Diameters—Backing-Off—Brass Work—Spinning Lathes—General Purpose Operations—Indexing for Gear Teeth—Special Types of Lathes

CHAPTER VI MILLING AND GRINDING
Eric N. Simons

Milling Machine—Speed and Feed—Variations of Cutter—Clearance Angles—Sharpening Cutters—Working Methods—Climb and Thread Milling—Cutting Angles—Grinding— Flat Surface Work—Cylindrical Grinding—Choice and Grain of Wheels—Methods of Work

CHAPTER V
SPECIAL MACHINE TOOLS
Eric N. Simons

Broaching—Push and Pull Machines—Cutting Keyways—Burnishing—Planing—Shaping— Profiling—Multiple-Tool Lathes—Roll-Turner's Lathes—Automatic Tapping Machines—Grinding Machines—Magnetic Chucks—Machine Attachments

CHAPTER VI
GEARS AND GEAR-CUTTING
W. A. Tuplin, D. Sc.

Types of Gears—Their Uses—Gear-Train Ratios—Definitions of Terms—Pitches—Formula— Gear-Cutting Machines—The Generating Principle—Crossed-Axis Shaving-Worm Manufacturing—Accuracy Tests—Materials—Lubrication

CHAPTER IX
JIGS AND FIXTURES
J. S. Murphy

Why jigs and Fixtures Are Used—Angle Plates—Box-Jigs—Clamping Devices-Drilling Jigs and Bushings—Standards for Jigs—Templates—Lathe Fixtures—Jig Boring Machines —Magnetic Chucks—Indexing Fixtures—Slot Milling—Irregular Profiles

CHAPTER X PRESSING, STAMPING, AND PUNCHING
J. S. Murphy

Types of Press—Operations They Perform—Fly, Power, and Inclinable Presses—Feeding Devices—Motors—Double-Action Presses—Press Tools—Dies—Drawing Cup-Shaped Articles—
Curling Edges—Medal Pressing—Punches and Punching—Drifts—Dinking Punches

CHAPTER XI
HEAT-TREATMENT OF METALS
John D. Watson

Relative Hardness of Metals—Softening Steel—Annealing—Hardness Testing—Normalizing— Tempering—High Carbon Steel—Martensite—Case-Hardening—Effect on Steels— The Cyanide Process—Carburizing—Nitrogen-Hardening—Malleable Iron

CHAPTER XII
WELDING, SOLDERING, AND BRAZING
John D. Watson and Eric N. Simons

Uses of Welding—Resistance Welding—Repairing Castings—Types of Joints—Arc Welding- Gas Welding—Copper and Bronze—Use of the Blowpipe—Aluminum—Soldering— Tools and Methods—Brazing—Preparation of Work

CHAPTER XIII
FORGING
John D. Watson

Hammer- and Machine-Forging—The Fire—Hammers and Tools—Erecting a Hammer- Forging Alloy Steels-Drop-Forging-Board-Hammers—Power-Operated Drop Hammers -^Machine-Forging—Making Nuts

CHAPTER XIV
FOUNDRY WORK
E. D. Howard

Molding Sands—Foundry Blackings—Mold Making—The Odd side—Ramming—Venting— Runners and Risers—Cores—Patterns—Bedded-in Molds—Loam Molds—False Oddsides— Plate Molding—Molding Machines—Multiple Molds—Machine-Molding Gears—Mending- Up—Permanent Molds—Melting Iron—Pouring—Fettling—Malleable Castings

CHARTER XV
MEASURING AND TESTING
Ronald Smith

Laying-Out with Rule—Scribers—Dividers-Try Square—Use of Trammels—The Surface Plate—Measuring with Calipers—Principles and Use of the Micrometer and Vernier— Vernier Protractors—Dial, Cylinder, and Feeler Gages—Thread Gages—Plug Gages— Radius Gages—Principles of Testing—Angle Plates—The Spirit Level-The Plumb-Bob—Use of Tangent Tables—Limits and Clearance—Newall Limits—Angles and Tapers

CHAPTER XVI
MACHINE DRAWING
J. W. Broadbent

Types of Drawings—Draftsman's Equipment—Drawing to Scale—Projections—Dimension Lines—Method of Indicating Materials—Types of Keys and Keyways—limit*—fits—Pre~ paring Drawings and Blueprint*—True-to-Scale Prints

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