Related Resources: Electrical Design Engineering

DC Electrical Circuit Analysis A Practical Approach

Instrumentation, Electronics & Control Sensing Devices

DC Electrical Circuit Analysis, A Practical Approach
James Fiore, Professor
Electrical Engineering Technology
Mohawk Valley Community College
374 Pages

Open: DC Electrical Circuit Analysis, A Practical Approach

Preface:

Welcome to DC Electrical Circuit Analysis, an open educational resource (OER). The goal of this text is to introduce the theory and practical application of analysis of DC electrical circuits. It is offered free of charge under a Creative Commons non-commercial, share-alike with attribution license. For your convenience, along with the free pdf and odt files, print copies are available at a very modest charge. Check my web sites for links.

This text is based on the earlier Workbook for DC Electrical Circuits, which it replaces. The original expository text has been greatly expanded and includes many examples along with computer simulations. For the convenience of those who used the Workbook, many of the problem sets are the same, with some re-ordering depending on the chapter.

The text begins with coverage of scientific and engineering notation along with the metric system. Also included is a discussion of the scientific method, the underpinning of our entire system of investigation and technology. From there, basic concepts and quantities are introduced such as charge, current, energy, power and voltage. Subsequent chapters introduce resistance, series circuits, parallel circuits and series-parallel circuits. The text continues with chapters covering network theorems, more advanced techniques such as nodal and mesh analysis, and finally finishes with introductions to capacitors, inductors and magnetic circuits. The companion AC Electrical Circuit Analysis text picks up after this point. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives and concludes with practice exercises that are generally divided into four major types: analysis, design, challenge and simulation. Many SPICE-based circuit simulators are available, both free and commercial, that can be used with this text. The answers to most odd-numbered exercises can be found in the Appendix. A table of standard resistor sizes is also in the Appendix, which is useful for real-world design problems. Finally, the Appendix includes a section reviewing simultaneous equation solutions. If you have any questions regarding this text, or are interested in contributing to the project, do not hesitate to contact me.

This text is part of a series of OER titles in the areas of electricity, electronics, audio and computer programming. It includes three other textbooks covering semiconductor devices, operational amplifiers, and embedded programming using the C language with the Arduino platform. There is a text covering AC electrical circuits similar to this one, and also seven laboratory manuals; one for each of the five texts plus individual titles covering computer programming using the Python language, and the science of sound.

TOC

Chapter 1: Fundamentals . . . . . . . 10
1.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 10
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 10
1.2 Significant Digits and Resolution . . . . . . 11
1.3 Scientific and Engineering Notation . . . . . . 14
1.4 The Metric System . . . . . . . . 16
1.5 The Scientific Method. . . . . . . . 18
1.6 Critical Thinking . . . . . . . . 21
1.7 RoHS . . . . . . . . . 24
Summary . . . . . . . . . 25
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 26

Chapter 2: Basic Quantities . . . . . . 30
2.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 30
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 30
2.2 An Atomic Model . . . . . . . . 30
2.3 Charge and Current . . . . . . . . 34
2.4 Energy and Voltage . . . . . . . . 36
2.5 Power and Efficiency . . . . . . . . 39
2.6 Energy Cost and Battery Life . . . . . . . 42
2.7 Resistance and Conductance . . . . . . . 47
2.8 Instrumentation and Laboratory . . . . . . 63
Summary . . . . . . . . . 67
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 68

Chapter 3: Series Resistive Circuits . . . . . 74
3.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 74
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 74
3.2 Conventional Current Flow and Electron Flow . . . . . 74
3.3 The Series Connection . . . . . . . 75
3.4 Combining Series Components . . . . . . 77
3.5 Ohm's Law . . . . . . . . . 78
3.6 Kirchhoff's Voltage Law . . . . . . . 82
3.7 Series Analysis . . . . . . . . 83
3.8 Potentiometers and Rheostats . . . . . . 92
Summary . . . . . . . . . 96
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 97

Chapter 4: Parallel Resistive Circuits . . . . . 110
4.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 110
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 110
4.2 The Parallel Connection . . . . . . . 111
4.3 Combining Parallel Components . . . . . . 111
4.4 Kirchhoff's Current Law . . . . . . . 115
4.5 Parallel Analysis . . . . . . . . 117
4.6 Current Limiting: Fuses and Circuit Breakers . . . . . 125
Summary . . . . . . . . . 127
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 128

Chapter 5: Series-Parallel Resistive Circuits . . . . 138
5.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 138
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 138
5.2 Series-Parallel Connections . . . . . . . 139
5.3 Simplifying Series-Parallel Components . . . . . 139
5.4 Series-Parallel Analysis . . . . . . . 143
Summary . . . . . . . . . 155
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 157

Chapter 6: Analysis Theorems and Techniques . . . . 170
6.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 170
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 170
6.2 Source Conversions . . . . . . . . 171
6.3 Superposition Theorem . . . . . . . 177
6.4 Thévenin's Theorem . . . . . . . . 181
6.5 Norton's Theorem . . . . . . . . 187
6.6 Maximum Power Transfer Theorem . . . . . . 188
6.7 Delta-Y Conversions . . . . . . . . 191
Summary . . . . . . . . . 197
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 199

Chapter 7: Nodal & Mesh Analysis, Dependent Sources . . 214
7.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 214
7.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 214
7.2 Nodal Analysis . . . . . . . . 215
7.3 Mesh Analysis . . . . . . . . 229
7.4 Dependent Sources . . . . . . . . 238
Summary . . . . . . . . . 243
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 244

Chapter 8: Capacitors . . .. .. .. .. .. 260
8.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 260
8.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 260
8.2 Capacitance and Capacitors . . . . . . . 261
8.3 Initial and Steady-State Analysis of RC Circuits . . . . . 272
8.4 Transient Response of RC Circuits . . . . . . 274
Summary . . . . . . . . . 285
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 287

Chapter 9: Inductors . . .. .. .. .. .. 294
9.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 294
9.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . 294
9.2 Inductance and Inductors . . . . . . . 295
9.3 Initial and Steady-State Analysis of RL Circuits . . . . . 303
9.4 Initial and Steady-State Analysis of RLC Circuits . . . . . 306
9.5 Transient Response of RL Circuits . . . . . . 307
Summary . . . . . . . . . 317
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 318

Chapter 10: Magnetic Circuits and Transformers .. .. .. 324
10.0 Chapter Objectives . . . . . . . . 324
10.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . 324
10.2 Electromagnetic Induction. . . . . . . . 325
10.3 Magnetic Circuits . . . . . . . . 329
10.4 Transformers . . . . . . . . 342
Summary . . . . . . . . . 348
Exercises . . . . . . . . . 350

Appendices
A: Standard Component Sizes . . . . . . . 355
B: Methods of Solution of Linear Simultaneous Equations . . . 356
C: Equation Proofs . . . . . . . . 361
D: Answers to Selected Odd-Numbered Problems . . . . 363
E: Base Units . . . . . . . . 373
F: Appropriate Commentary . . . . . . . 374

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