Related Resources: mechanical-tolerances
Circular Forgings Normal Tolerance Calculator per. EN-10243-1
Circular Forgings Normal Tolerance and Dimensions Calculator
Drop and vertical press forgings per. EN-10243-1 Forging grade F Tolerances for length, and diameter. Forging grade F providing typical or normal tolerances. While grade E (close) tolerances may be applied to all dimensions on one forging, it is more economical to apply them only to those specific dimensions on which closer tolerances are essential.
Information required in determining forging tolerances
To determine the tolerances applicable to a given forging the following information is required in addition to the dimensions of the forging:
- mass of forging;
- shape of die line;
- category of steel used;
- shape complexity factor;
- type of dimension.
The shape complexity factor takes account of the fact that in forging thin sections and branched components, as compared to components having simple compact shapes, larger dimensional variations occur which are attributable to different rates of shrinkage, higher shaping forces and higher rates of die wear.
The shape complexity factor of a forging is the ratio of the mass of the forging to the mass of the enveloping shape necessary to accommodate the maximum dimensions of the forging.
Shape complexity factor
S = mf / mes
Circular mass enveloping shape
mes = π · ( d2 / 4 ) · h · ρ
mf = mass forging
mes = Mass enveloping shape See figures 1 and 2
d = diameter;
ρ = density (0.00785 g/mm3);
l = length dimension;
h = diameter dimension
The enveloping shape of a circular forging is the circumscribing cylinder, the mass of which is calculated from the formula given in Eq. 1 and 2.
Enveloping shapes of circular forgings
The resulting shape complexity factor is determined as falling within one of the following categories:
S4: Up to and including 0,16;
S3: Above 0,16 up to and including 0,32;
S2: Above 0,32 up to and including 0,63;
S1: Above 0,63 up to and including 1.
Category of steel used
The type of steel symbol used takes account of the fact that steels of high carbon and high alloy content are more difficult to deform and cause higher die wear than do steels with lower carbon content and lower alloying elements.
The category of steel used is determined as being within one of the following:
- Group M1: Steel with carbon content not more than 0,65 % and total of specified alloying elements (Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, V, W) not more than 5 % by mass;
- Group M2: Steel with carbon content above 0,65 % or total of specified alloying elements (Mn, Ni, Cr, Mo, V, W) above 5 % by mass.
To determine the category in which a steel belongs, the maximum permitted content of the elements in the steel specification shall be the values used.
Shape of die line
Figure 3 Shape of Die
EN 10243-1 Steel die forgings Tolerances on dimensions, Part 1: Drop and vertical press forgings
Alternatively: BS EN 10243-1, Steel die forgings Tolerances on dimensions, Part 1: Drop and vertical press forgings
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