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Heat transfer is a basic science that deals with the rate of transfer of thermal energy. This introductory text is intended for use in a first course in heat transfer for undergraduate engineering students, and as a reference book for practicing engineers. The objectives of this text are

• To cover the basic principles of heat transfer.
• To present a wealth of real-world engineering applications to give students a feel for engineering practice.
• To develop an intuitive understanding of the subject matter by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments.

In engineering practice, an understanding of the mechanisms of heat transfer is becoming increasingly important since heat transfer plays a crucial role in the design of vehicles, power plants, refrigerators, electronic devices, buildings and bridges, among other things. Even a chef needs to have an intuitive understanding of the heat transfer mechanism in order to cook the food “right” by adjusting the rate of heat transfer. We may not be aware of it, but we already use the principles of heat transfer when seeking thermal comfort. We insulate our bodies by putting on heavy coats in winter, and we minimize heat gain by radiation by staying in shady places in summer. We speed up the cooling of hot food by blowing on it and keep warm in cold weather by cuddling up and thus minimizing the exposed surface area. That is, we already use heat transfer whether we realize it or not.

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix
LIST OF TABLES xüi
FOREWORD xvi
PREFACE xviii
PART ONE: THE ARMY DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
CHAPTER 1
BASIC CONCEPTS AND CONSIDERATIONS
1-1 INTRODUCTION 1-1
1-2 DEFINITION OF PRODUCIBILITY 1-1
1-3 PRODUCIBILITY IN DESIGN DEVELOPMENT 1-1
1-3.1 Concept Formulation Phase 1-4
1-3.2 Definition Phase 1-4
1-3.3 Development andProduction Phase 1-4
1-4 IDENTIFYING PRODUCIBILITY OBJECTIVES 1-5
REFERENCES 1-8

CHAPTER 2
DESIGN EVOLUTION
2-1 ROLE OF CONFIGURATION MANAGEMENT 2-1
2-2 PRODUCIBILITY AND THE SYSTEM DESCRIPTION 2-1
2-2.1 Scope 2-1
2-2.2 Applicable Documents 2-1
2-2.3 Requirements 2-1
2-2.3.1 Performance 2-2
2-2.3.2 Physical Characteristics 2-7
2-2.3.3 Supply and Maintenance 2-7
2-2.3.4 Personnel and Training 2-7
2-2.3.5 System Definition 2-7
2-2.3.6 Requirements for Primary Functional Areas 2-7
2-2.3.7 System Design and Construction Standards 2-8
2-2.3.8 Value Engineering 2-8
2-2.3.9 Publications 2-8
2-2.4 Test and Evaluation Requirements 2-8
2-2.5 Preparation for Delivery 2-9
2-2.6 Notes 2-9
2-2.7 Appendix 2-9
2-2.8 Objectives and Constraints 2-9
2-2.9 Evaluating the System Description 2-9
2-3 DEVELOPMENT DESCRIPTION 2-12
2-4 TECHNICAL DATA PACKAGE 2-12
2-4.1 Product Specification 2-13
2-4.2 Data List 2-13
2^1.3 Parts List 2-13
2-4.4 Drawings 2-13
2-4.5 Quality Assurance Data 2-13
2-4.6 Government Standards and Specifications 2-21
2-4.7 Industry Standards and Specifications 2-21
24.8 End Item Final Inspection Requirements (EIFIR) 2-21
2-5 REVISION SYSTEM 2-212-5.1
Engineering Change Proposals (ECP's) 2-21
Class of Revision 2-21
Notice of Revision (NOR) and Engineering Revision Notice (ERN) 2-27
THE TDP AND THE PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT 2-27
Goals of TDP Preparation 2-27
TDP Drawings and Production 2-27
Some Problems of Communication 2-27
Conclusion 2-28
REFERENCES 2-28

CHAPTER 3
THE SYSTEMATIC APPROACH TO DESIGN
WHY BE SYSTEMATIC? 3-1
THE ITERATIVE PROCESS 3-1
THE SYSTEMATIC APPROACH 3-6
APPLICATION TO THE DESIGN FUNCTION 3-6
Evaluation 3-7
The Analysis 3-7
Refinement » 3-8
REFERENCES 3-8

CHAPTER 4
PLANNING FOR PRODUCIBILITY
THE NEED FOR PLANNING 4-1
PERSPECTIVE 4-1
Getting the Perspective 4-1
Reliability 4-2
Maintainability 4-2
Safety 4-3
Human Factors Engineering 4-3
Life Support 4-3
Value Engineering 4-4
Standardization 4-4
Configuration Management 4-4
Interface Management 4-4
Logistic Management 4-4
Quality Assurance 4-5
The Role of Quality Assurance 4-5
Engineering Design and Mockup Reviews 4-5
CHECKLISTS 4-8
REFERENCES 4-8

CHAPTER 5
COMMON DEFICIENCIES IN DESIGN
THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM 5-1
CAUSES OF DEFICIENCIES 5-1
ERRORS OF COMMISSION AND OMISSION 5-1
Excessive Complexity 5-1
Production Restrictiveness 5-2
Conflicting Direction 5-2
5-3.4 Darn Fool (DF) Error 5-2
5-3.5 Inadequate Planning 5-2
5-3.6 Inadequate Specification and Insufficient Detail 5-2

CHAPTER 6
SPECIFICATIONS AND STANDARDS
6-1 "MIL-SPECS" PRO AND CON 6-1
6-1.1 Technology 6-1
6-1.2 Economics 6-1
6-1.3 Communications 6-1
6-2 APPLICATION OF STANDARDS AND SPECIFICATION TREES 6-5
6-2.1 Top Level Requirements Specifications 6-7
6-2.2 Component 6-7
6-2.3 Contract End Item (CEI) 6-7
6-2,4 Critical Component 6-7
6-2.5 Specification Control Log ■. 6-7
6-2.6 Design Specification 6-7
6-2,7 Updating the Specification Tree 6-7
6-3 A MATERIAL SPECIFICATION SYSTEM UTILIZED IN INDUSTRY 6-8
REFERENCES 6-9

CHAPTER 7
VALUE ENGINEERING TECHNIQUES
7-1 WHAT IS VALUE ENGINEERING? 7-1
7-2 APPLICATIONS 7-1
7-3 FRINGE EFFECTS 7-10
14 CHECKLISTS 7-10
7-5 WORKSHEETS 7-10
REFERENCES 7-11

CHAPTER 8
SELECTION OF MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
8-1 INTRODUCTION 8-1
8-2 SELECTION CRITERIA 8-1
8-3 COST-EFFECTIVENESS 8-2
8-4 SELECTION APPROACH 8-4
8-5 FUTURE POTENTIALS 8-5
8-6 ROLE OF DECISION PHILOSOPHY 8-5
8-7 THE DECISION PROCESS 8-6
REFERENCES 8-10
PART TWO: THE PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT

CHAPTER 9
MATERIALS
9-1 GENERAL 9-1
9-2 PURPOSE 9-1
9-3 MATERIAL SELECTION FACTORS 9-1
9^1 MATERIAL PRODUCIBILITY OBJECTIVES 9-1
9-5 AVAILABILITY 94
9-5.1 Critical Materials 9-1
9-5.2 Standard Mill Products 9-2
9-S.3 Metal Shapes 9-2
9-S.4 Preplated, Precoated, and Clad Materials 9-2
9-6 POWDER METALLURGY 9-24
9-7 PLASTICS 9-31
9-8 COSTS 9-32
9-9 ACCIDENT HAZARDS 9-37
9-10 INSPECTION 9-49
9-10.1 Magnetic Particle Testing 9-49
9-10-2 Radiography 9-49
9-10.3 Ultrasonic Testing 9-49
9-10.4 Penetrants 9-49
9-11 CANDIDATE MATERIALS 9-50
REFERENCES 9-50

CHAPTER 10
FABRICATION PROCESSES
10-1 GENERAL 10-1
10-2 PRIMARY FABRICATION PROCESSES 10-1
10-2.1 Casting 10-1
10-2.2 Forging 10-1
10-2.3 Extrusion 10-7
10-3 SECONDARY FABRICATION PROCESSES 10-7
10-3.1 Material Removal 10-8
10-3.1.1 Machinability 10-8
10-3.1.2 Conventional Mechanical Machining Processes 10-9
10-3.1.2.1 Boring Operations 10-9
10-3.1.2.2 Broaching Operations 10-9
10-3.1.2.3 Drilling Operations 10-12
10-3.1.2.4 Generating or Gear Shaper Operations 10-12
10-3.1.2.5 Hobbing Operations 10-12
10-3.1.2.6 Milling Operations 10-13
10-3.1.2.7 Planing Operations 10-13
10-3.1.2.8 Reaming Operations 10-13
10-3.1.2.9 Shaping Operations 10-13
10-3.1.2.10 Slotting Operations 10-13
10-3.1.2.11 Trepanning Operations 10-13
10-3.1.2.12 Turning Operations 10-14
10-3.1.2.13 Other Machining Processes 10-14
10-3.1.3 Grinding 10-14
10-3.1.3.1 Cylindrical Grinding 10-14
10-3.1.3.2 Centerless Grinding 10-14
10-3.1.3.3 Surface Grinding 10-19
10-3.1.3.4 Abrasive Belt Grinding 10-19
10-3.1.3.5 Other Grinding Methods 10-19
10-3.2 Cutting 10-19
10-3.2.1 Flame Cutting 10-19
10-3.2.2 Sawing 10-19
10-3.2.2.1 Band Sawing 10-19
10-3.2.2.2 Friction Band Sawing 10-21
10-3.3 Finishing 10-21
10-3.3.1 Honing Operations 10-23
10-3.3.2 Lapping Operations 10-23
10-3.3.3 Superfinishing 10-25
10-3.3.4 Electrochemical Honing (ECH) 10-25
10-3.3.5 Rotofinishing 10-25

CHAPTER 11
HEAT TREATING AND CLEANING PROCESSES
11-1 HEAT TREATING 11-1
11-2 MATERIAL SELECTION AND DESIGN FOR HEAT TREATMENT 11-1
11-3 HARDENING 11-1
11-3.1 Quenching and Tempering 11-1
11-3.2 Martempering 11-4
11-3.3 Austempering 11-4
11-3.4 Maragjng 11-4
11-4 ANNEALING 11-5
11-4.1 Full Annealing 11-5
11-4.2 Isothermal Annealing 11-5
11-4.3 Spheroidizing 11-5
11-4.4 Process Annealing 11-5
11-4.5 Stress Relieving 11-5
11-5 NORMALIZING 11-5
11-6 INDUCTION HEAT TREATING 11-5
11-7 SURFACE HARDENING METHODS 11-6
11-8 CLEANING 11-6
11-8.1 Selection of a Cleaning Process 11-7
11-8.2 Sou Types 11-7
11-8.3 Subsequent Operations 11-7
11-8.3.1 Phosphating 11-7
11-8.3.2 Painting 11-7
11-8.3.3 Electroplating 11-7
11-8.3.4 Bonding 11-7
11-8.3.5 In-process Cleaning 11-8
11-9 CLEANING METHODS 11-8
11-9.1 Mechanical Cleaning Methods 11-8
11-9.1.1 Grinding 11-8
11-9.1.2 Brushing 11-9
11-9.1.3 Abrasive Blasting 11-9
11-9.1.4 Steam or Flame Jet Cleaning 11-9
11-9.1.5 Tumbling 11-10
11-9.2 Electrochemical Cleaning Methods 11-10
11-9.2.1 Electropoiishing 11-10
11-9.2.2 Electrolytic Alkaline Cleaning 11-10
11-9.2.3 Electrolytic Pickling 11-10
11-9.3 Chemical Cleaning Methods 11-10
11-9.3.1 Solvent Cleaning 11-10
11-9.3.2 Emulsion Cleaning 11-11
11-9.3.3 Alkaline Cleaning 11-11
11-9.3.4 Acid Cleaning 11-11
11-9.3.5 Pickling 11-12
11-9.3.6 Descaling 11-12
11-9.3.7 Paint Stripping or Removing 11-12

CHAPTER 12
JOINING METHODS
12-1 GENERAL 12-1
12-2 MECHANICAL FASTENING 12-1
12-3 METALLURGICAL JOINING 12-1
12-3.1 Welding 12-1
12-3.1.1 Arc Welding 12-2
12-3.1.1.1 Coated Electrode Arc Welding 12-2
12-3.1.1.2 Inert Gas Metal Arc Consumable Electrode Welding 12-2
12-3.1.1.3 Inert Gas Tungsten Arc Welding 12-5
12-3.1.1.4 Submerged Arc Welding 12-5
12-3.1.1.5 Atomic Hydrogen Welding 12-5
12-3.1.1.6 Plasma Arc Welding 12-5
12-3.1.2 Resistance Welding 12-5
12-3.1.3 Gas Welding 12-6
12-3.1.4 Thermit Welding 12-6
12-3.1.5 Electron Beam Welding 12-6
12-3.1.6 Ultrasonic Welding 12-7
12-3.1.7 Summary 12-7
12-3.2 Soldering 12-7
12-3.3 Solid-state Bonding 12-8
12-3.3.1 Roll Bonding 12-8
12-3.3.2 Friction Bonding 12-8
12-3.3.3 Extrusion Bonding 12-8
12-3.3.4 Explosive Bonding 12-8
12-3.3.5 Hot Press, Isostatic Pressure, and Vacuum Furnace Building 12-8
12-3.4 Brazing 12-8
12-3.4.1 Torch Brazing 12-9
12-3.4.2 Furnace Brazing 12-9
12-3.4.3 Flow Brazing 12-10
12-3.4.4 Ultrasonic Brazing 12-10
12-3.4.5 Block Brazing 12-10
12-3.4.6 CHEMICAL JOINING 12-10
12-3.4.7 Adhesives 12-10
12-3.4.8 Natural Adhesives 12-11
12-4 Induction Brazing 12-9
12-4.1 Dip Brazing 12-9
12-4.1.1 Resistance Brazing 12-10
12-4.1.2 Thermoplastic Adhesives 12-11
12-4.1.3 Thermosetting Adhesives 12-11
12-4.1.4 Elastomeric Adhesives 12-11

CHAPTER 13
COATING MATERIALS AND METHODS
13-1 GENERAL 13-1
13-2 NATURE OF CORROSION 13-1
13-2.1 Types of Corrosion 13-1
13-2.2 Protection Against Corrosion 13-2
13-3 STUDYING THE CORROSION PROBLEM 13-2
13-4 COATING METHODS AND MATERIALS 13-3
13-4.1 Metallurgical Coatings 13-3
13-4.1.1 Flame-sprayed Coatings 13-3
13-4.1.2 Weld Deposition Coatings 13-5
13-4.1.3 Diffusion Coatings 13-5
13-4.1.4 Hot Dipped Metal Coatings 13-5
13-4.2 Electrochemical Coatings 13-5
13-4.2.1 Electroplating 13-5
13-4.2.2 Anodizing 13-10
13-4.2.3 Hard Anodizing 13-10
13-4.3 Chemical Coatings , 13-10
13-4.3.1 Phosphate Coatings 13-10
13-4.3.2 Chromate Coatings 13_H
13-4.4 Mechanical Coating 13-11
13-4.4.1 Elastomer Coating 13-11
13-4.4.2 Vitreous Enamel Coatings 13-11
13-4.4.3 Paint, Varnish, Lacquer, and Related Coatings 13-11

PART THREE: INFORMATION SOURCES
APPENDIX A
THE TECHNICAL INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT
A-l INTRODUCTION A-l
A-2 SEARCHING THE LITERATURE A-l
A-2.1 Information Search Problems A-l
A-2.2 Information Roadmapping A-l
A-2.3 Developing an Information Roadmap A-2
A-2.3.1 Selection of Terms A-2
A-2.3.2 Ranking by Degree of Relationship A-3
A-3 SOURCES OF TECHNICAL INFORMATION AND DATA A-3
A-3.1 Technical Books A-3
A-3.2 Journals and Periodicals A-3
A-3.3 Documentation and Information Analysis Centers A-3
A-3.4 Abstracting and Indexing Services A-17
A-3.5 Scientific and Technical Organizations A-17
A-3.6 Trade, Business, and Commercial Organizations A-17
REFERENCES A-28

APPENDIX B
THE DESIGN ENVIRONMENT
B-l INTRODUCTION B-l
B-2 Design Environment Generic Trees B-l
B-3 BIBLIOGRAPHY B-I
B-3.1 System Description B-l
B-3.1.1 Scope B-4
B-3.1.2 Applicable Documents B-5
B-3.1.3 Requirements B-6
B-3.1.3.1 Reliability B-7
B-3.1.3.2 Maintainability , B-8
B-3.1.3.3 Human Performance B-8

B-3.1.3.4 Safety B-9
B-3.1.3.5 Supply and Maintenance B-10
B-3.1.3.6 Functional Interfaces B-J1
B-3.1.3.7 Electrical B-ll
B-3.1.3.8 Electromagnetic Interference B-ll
B-3.1.3.9 Standard Commercial and Qualified Parts B-ll
B-3.1.3.10 Materials, Products, and Processes B-ll
B-3.1.3.11 Period and Conditions of Storage B-12
B-3.1.3.12 Identification and Marking B-12
B-3.1.3.13 System Design and Construction Standards-Design Engineering Areas B-12
B-3.1.4 Value Engineering B-13
B-3.1.5 Test and Evaluation B-13
B-3.1.6 Preparation for Delivery B-14

APPENDIX C
THE PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT
C-l INTRODUCTION C-I
C-2 PRODUCTION ENVIRONMENT GENERIC TREES C-l
C-3 BIBLIOGRAPHY C-l
C-3.1 Materials C-l
C-3.1.1 Metals, Ferrous and Nonferrous C-l
C-3.1.2 Ceramics C-2
C-3.1.3 Plastics C-2
C-3.1.4 Elastomers C-2
C-3.1.5 Organic Materials C-2
C-3.1.6 Glass, Carbon, and Mica C-2
C-3.2 Fabrication, Primary and Secondary C-2
C-3.2.1 Fabrication, Primary C-3
C-3.2.2 Fabrication, Secondary C-3
C-3.3 Physical Metallurgy C-4
C-3.4 Cleaning C-4
C-3.5 Joining C-4
C-3.6 Coating C-4

APPENDIX D
THE LOGISTIC ENVIRONMENT
INTRODUCTION D-l
FUNCTION OF DEFENSE LOGISTICS
STUDIES INFORMATION EXCHANGE (DLSIE) D-l
How to Requisition Documents Listed in a DLSIE Bibliography D-l
Logistic Bibliography D-2

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